If you heard term biometric lately and wondering what the heck does it mean and how it’s important for you.
Well, in simple words biometric is the measurement of a person’s biological features which will be used to access the identification of that person. Most of the biological features are inherited and can’t be stolen from anyone.
However, to use the biometric identification system, the biological details of the person needed to be stored in the database. Such as nowadays, Aadhaar card is the biometric system which has been created by the government. In which, different biological features of the individual have been recorded like fingers prints, eye retina, etc., This is called enrollment.
How To Authenticate the Person?
The authentication process using the biological features can be done in the following two ways;
Identification. All the physical features and personality traits of the person are matched against the Information available in the database.
Verification. This process makes sure that the person is the same as he or she claiming by matching all the information.
Types of Biometric
There are mainly two different types of biometric procedure are present to check the identification and verification of the individual.
In this process, all physical traits of the individual are verified and identified against the information present in the database. However, the physical traits need to be different from the rest of the population like having a special mark on the particular body part.
Physiological Biometric Techniques
The physical traits can be verified and identified in the following ways;
Fingerprints. Everyone has different fingerprints in the universe, even the twins won’t have the same pair of fingerprints. There are plenty of different ways to get fingerprints of an individual. Minutiae-based measurement uses graphs to match ridges whereas image-based measurement finds similarities between the individuals’ fingertips image and fingerprint images present in the database. It has a high level of security and used both for identification and verification.
Facial Recognition. The special facial features like the length of the nose, size of the forehead, the shape of the face, skin tone, etc., are used to identify and verify the person as well.
Retina. Patterns found in the eye of the person are unique and can be used for verification purpose. However, cataracts like eye problem can alter the patterns.
Voice Recognition. The tone and pitch of the voice can be also used to recognize the individual.
DNA. It is the most persistent and effective way to recognize the person. That’s because DNA never changes in the person throughout his or her life.
In this type of biometric technique, the behavioral traits of the person are used for the identification and verification process. The types of behavioral methods are;
Signatures. The present signature of the person is used to compare them with the old signatures of the individual which are present in the database. Different signature tables and pens are used to compare the signatures. This biometric method is very common and mostly used for the verification purpose.
Keystroke Dynamic. In this process, the keystroke dynamics of the person being examined by watching the keyboard typing behavior of the person. Such as; typing speed, the frequency of errors and depression of keystroke is examined in this behavioral test. It is the most economical and easy to perform the biometric technique.
Measurement of Accuracy
False Rejection Rate. The number of time person with accurate information isn’t recognized. FRR=(Number of False Rejections/Total Number of Attempts)*100
False Accepted Rate. The number of times person with incorrect information is identified. FAR=(Number of False Acceptances/Total Number of Attempts)*100
Well, biometric recognition is the modern and most effective way to identify and verify the individual. However, to examine the biometric traits of the personal information need to be stored in the database of the particular computer system. And, this is the violation of the fundamental privacy rights of the individual as the personal information of the person is stored in the third party computer. This is the drawback of the biometric recognition system that you have to face if you want to use this system in your office.